Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of acute cholecystitis after endoscopic common bile duct (CBD) stone removal. Methods: A total 100 of patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone removal with gallbladder (GB) in situ without subsequent cholecystectomy from January 2000 to July 2004 were evaluated retrospectively. The following factors were considered while evaluating risk factors for the development of acute cholecystitis: age, gender, serum bilirubin level, GB wall thickening, cystic duct patency, presence of a GB stone, CBD diameter, residual stone, lithotripsy, juxtapapillary diverticulum, presence of liver cirrhosis or diabetes mellitus, a presenting illness of cholangitis or pancreatitis, and procedure-related complications. Results: During a mean 18-mo follow-up, 28 (28%) patients developed biliary symptoms; 17 (17%) acute cholecystitis and 13 (13%) CBD stone recurrence. Of patients with acute cholecystitis, 15 (88.2%) received laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 2 (11.8%) open cholecystectomy. All recurrent CBD stones were successfully removed endoscopically. The mean time elapse to acute cholecystitis was 10.2 mo (1-37 mo) and that to recurrent CBD stone was 18.4 mo. Of the 17 patients who received cholecystectomy, 2 (11.8%) developed recurrent CBD stones after cholecystectomy. By multivariate analysis, a serum total bilirubin level of <1.3 mg/dL and a CBD diameter of <11 mm at the time of stone removal were found to predict the development of acute cholecystitis. Conclusion: After CBD stone removal, there is no need for routine prophylactic cholecystectomy. However, patients without a dilated bile duct (<11 mm) and jaundice (<1.3 mg/dL) at the time of CBD stone removal have a higher risk of acute cholecystitis and are possible candidates for prophylactic cholecystectomy.
- Acute cholecystitis