The data regarding risk factors for death during tuberculosis (TB) treatment are inconsistent, and few studies examined this issue in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline prognostic factors for death during treatment of adult patients with pulmonary TB in Korea. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of 2,481 patients who received TB treatment at eight hospitals from January 2009 to December 2010 was performed. Successful treatment included cure (1,129, 45.5%) and treatment completion (1,204, 48.5%) in 2,333 patients (94.0%). Unsuccessful treatment included death (85, 3.4%) and treatment failure (63, 2.5%) occurred in 148 patients (6.0%). In multivariate analysis, male sex, anemia, dyspnea, chronic heart disease, malignancy, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were significant risk factors for death during TB treatment. Therefore, male sex, anemia, dyspnea, chronic heart disease, malignancy, and ICU admission could be baseline prognostic factors for death during treatment of adult patients with pulmonary TB in Korea.