O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification has been described in many proteins, including nuclear pore glyco-proteins. In the present study we investigated the effect of extracellular glucose on the level of modification of nuclear pore protein p62 by O-GlcNAc. We found that exposure of cells to a high concentration of glucose caused an increased level of modification of p62 with O-GlcNAc, whereas the modification of other proteins did not change detectably. The increased O-GlcNAc modification of p62 in response to glucose required the metabolism of glucose to glucosamine. The exposure of the cells to glucosamine itself also caused increased O-GlcNAc modification, whereas mannosamine and galactosamine did not. Furthermore, changes in glucose concentrations within the physiological range induced the O-GlcNAc modification in p62 in rat aortic smooth-muscle cells, indicating that this modification of p62 might occur in an intact animal. These results imply that the ambient glucose concentration has an impact on the level of O-GlcNAc modification of protein such as p62, and that functional changes in some of these proteins might ensue.