Reliability and validity of the short form of the literacy-independent cognitive assessment in the elderly

Jungeun Kim, Jee H. Jeong, Seol Heui Han, Hui Jin Ryu, Jun Young Lee, Seung Ho Ryu, Dong Woo Lee, Yong S. Shim, Seong Hye Choi

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8 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose The Literacy-Independent Cognitive Assessment (LICA) has been developed for a diagnosis of dementia and is a useful neuropsychological test battery for illiterate populations as well as literate populations. The objective of this study was to develop the short form of the LICA (S-LICA) and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the S-LICA. Methods The subtests of the S-LICA were selected based on the factor analysis and validation study results of the LICA. Patients with dementia (n=101) and normal elderly controls (n=185) participated in this study. Results Cronbach's coefficient alpha of the S-LICA was 0.92 for illiterate subjects and 0.94 for literate subjects, and the item-total correlation ranged from 0.63 to 0.81 (p<0.01).The test-retest reliability of the S-LICA total score was high (r=0.94, p<0.001), and the subtests had high test-retest reliabilities (r=0.68-0.87, p<0.01). The correlation between the K-MMSE and S-LICA total scores were substantial in both the illiterate subjects (r=0.837, p<0.001) and the literate subjects(r=0.802, p<0.001). The correlation between the S-LICA and LICA was very high (r=0.989, p<0.001). The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.999 for the literate subjects and 0.985 for the illiterate subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of the S-LICA for a diagnosis of dementia were 97% and 96% at the cutoff point of 72 for the literate subjects, and 96% and 93% at the cutoff point of 68 for the illiterate subjects, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that the S-LICA is a reliable and valid instrument for quick evaluation of patients with dementia in both illiterate and literate elderly populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-117
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Neurology (Korea)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • Dementia
  • Illiteracy
  • Sensitivity
  • Specificity


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