Objective: Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to obesity. Menopause may play a critical role in understanding the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome in women. We investigated the relative contribution of obesity and menopause to the association between serum adiponectin levels and the development of metabolic syndrome. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in which a total of 1,219 women without metabolic syndrome were examined at baseline (2005-2008) and followed up (2008-2011). Women were divided according to tertiles of serum adiponectin levels and menopause status, and then stratified into four groups: the nonobese with high adiponectin; the nonobese with low adiponectin; the obese with high adiponectin; and the obese with low adiponectin. Results: During an average 2.5-year follow-up, 44 premenopausal women (9.8%) and 161 postmenopausal women (20.9%) developed metabolic syndrome. The obese group with low serum adiponectin demonstrated an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in both premenopausal (odds ratio [OR] 5.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24-15.66) and postmenopausal women (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.41-7.36). However, the inverse association between serum adiponectin levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome was observed in premenopausal women with obesity (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.81), but not in postmenopausal women with obesity (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27-1.14). Conclusions: High serum adiponectin levels showed no inverse association with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with obesity. These findings may suggest a need for closer management of metabolic risk in postmenopausal women.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received March 28, 2017; revised and accepted June 28, 2017. From the 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea; 2Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, South Korea; 4Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeong-san, South Korea; and 5Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea. Funding/support: This study was supported in part by a grant from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-E71013-00, 2006-E71002-00, 2007-E71013-00, 2008-E71004-00, 2009-E71006-00, 2010-E71003-00). Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported. Address correspondence to: Song Vogue Ahn, MD, PhD, Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 20 Ilsan-ro, Wonju, Gangwon-do 26426, South Korea. E-mail: dodge@ yonsei.ac.kr
© 2017 by The North American Menopause Society.
- Metabolic syndrome
- Prospective study