Objective: Panic disorder (PD) is frequently comorbid with insomnia, which could exacerbate panic symptoms and contribute to PD relapse. Research has suggested that characteristics are implicated in both PD and insomnia. However, there are no reports examining whether temperament and character affect insomnia in PD. Thus, we examined the relationship between insomnia and personality ch-aracteristics in PD patients. Methods: Participants were 101 patients, recruited from 6 university hospitals in Korea, who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PD. We as-sessed sleep outcomes using the sleep items of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17)(item 4=onset latency, item 5= middle awakening, and item 6=early awakening) and used the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short to assess personality characteristics. To examine the relationship between personality and insomnia, we used analysis of variance with age, sex, and severity of depression (total HAMD scores minus sum of the three sleep items) as the covariates. Results: There were no statistical differences (p>0.1) in demographic and clinical data between patients with and without insomnia. Initial insomnia (delayed sleep onset) correlated to a high score on the temperamental dimension of novelty seeking 3 (NS3)(F1,96=6.93, p=0.03). There were no statistical differences (p>0.1) in NS3 between patients with and without middle or terminal insomnia. Conclusion: The present study suggests that higher NS3 is related to the development of initial insomnia in PD and that temperament and character should be considered when assessing sleep problems in PD patients.
- Panic disorder