Relationship analysis between flavonoids structure and subcritical water extraction (SWE)

Min Jung Ko, Chan Ick Cheigh, Myong Soo Chung

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129 Scopus citations


Subcritical water (about 10 MPa) is an excellent solvent for extracting non-polar flavonoids by varying the temperature-dependent dielectric constant. This study determined the optimum conditions for subcritical water extraction (SWE), such as the time and temperature, for extracting flavonoids from eight plants, and their dependence on the chemical structure of flavonoids (polarity of side chains and the presence of sugar, and double bonds). Flavonoids having an OH side chain (quercetin at 170 °C/10 min) were optimally extracted at lower temperatures than O-CH3 (isorhamnetin at 190 °C/15 min) and H (kaempferol at 190 °C/15 min) side chains. The optimal temperatures of the glycoside forms including sugar, such as quercitrin (110 C/5 min), spiraeoside (150 °C/15 min), and isoquercitrin (150 °C/15 min), were lower than of the less-polar aglycones (170 °C/10 min and 190 °C/15 min). Apigenin, having double bonds, was extracted well at a higher temperature (190 °C/15 min) than naringenin (170 °C/15 min) in SWE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-155
Number of pages9
JournalFood Chemistry
StatePublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (No. 2010–0021890 ).


  • Chemical structure
  • Flavonoids
  • Optimum conditions
  • Subcritical water extraction


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