Rejoinder: How methodological decisions impact the validity of moral content analyses

Frederic R. Hopp, René Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

2 Scopus citations


We herein discuss our commentary in light of Wang and Liu's response and clarify our suggestions regarding their original content analysis. Revisiting the methodological decisions that impact the reliability and validity of moral content codings, we focus on the selection and separation of coding and context units, the importance of keeping the annotations of codebook creators and coders independent for obtaining unbiased reliability estimates, the advantages of intuitive, context-aware text highlighting tasks executed by an optimally trained crowd, and on using the recommended moral dictionary scoring options when automatically coding textual documents. We thank Wang and Liu for their engagement with our commentary and in joining our efforts to improve guidelines for conducting reproducible, reliable, and valid moral content analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-393
Number of pages5
JournalCommunication Monographs
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 National Communication Association.


  • content analysis
  • model of intuitive morality and exemplars
  • moral foundations theory
  • Moral framing
  • moral intuition


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