Reduction of Salmonella typhimurium by fermentation metabolites of Diamond V original XPC in an In Vitro anaerobic mixed chicken cecal culture

Peter Rubinelli, Stephanie Roto, Sun Ae Kim, Si Hong Park, Hilary O. Pavlidis, Don McIntyre, Steven C. Ricke

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25 Scopus citations


Fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC), a biological product derived from yeast fermentation, were evaluated for their ability to reduce the Salmonella Typhimurium population using an in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system containing cecal microbiota to simulate chicken hindgut conditions. Four different samples were prepared: anaerobic mixed culture containing (1) feed only, (2) cecal only (ceca were harvested from 42 days old broiler chickens), (3) feed and cecal contents, and (4) feed, cecal contents, and 1% XPC. Two experimental conditions were investigated: Group 1, in which the cecal content was added at the same time as a S. Typhimurium marker strain and Group 2, in which the cecal content was preincubated for 24 h prior to the inoculation with the S. Typhimurium marker strain. The mixed cultures were incubated anaerobically at 37°C, and the S. Typhimurium marker strain was enumerated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Analysis of short chain fatty acids was also conducted for 24 h. In the Group 1 experiment, adding XPC did not exhibit significant reduction of S. Typhimurium. However, the presence of XPC resulted in rapid reduction of S. Typhimurium in Group 2. S. Typhimurium was reduced from 6.81 log10 CFU/ml (0 h) to 3.73 log10 CFU/ml and 1.19 log10 CFU/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. These levels were also 2.47 log10 and 2.72 log10 lower than the S. Typhimurium level recovered from the control culture with feed and cecal contents, but without XPC. Based on these results, it appears that the ability of XPC to reduce S. Typhimurium requires the presence of the cecal microbiota. Short chain fatty acid analysis indicated that acetate and butyrate concentrations of cultures containing XPC were twofold greater than the control cultures by 24 h of anaerobic growth. Results from the present study suggest that dietary inclusion of XPC may influence cecal microbiota fermentation and has the potential to reduce Salmonella in the cecum. Implications of these findings suggest that XPC may decrease preharvest levels of Salmonella in broilers and layers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number83
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Issue numberSEP
StatePublished - 16 Sep 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, FDSC program for supporting a graduate student assistantship to SR. We thank the Michael G. Johnson Endowed Scholarship for Excellence in Food Microbiology Research, Teaching, and Peer Mentoring for providing financial assistance to SR. We would like to thank Diamond V Mills (Cedar Rapids, IA, USA) for support of this study. Author SK is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2015R1A6A3A03016811). Funding is provided by Diamond V (Cedar Rapids, IA, USA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Rubinelli, Roto, Kim, Park, Pavlidis, McIntyre and Ricke.


  • Diamond V Original XPC
  • In vitro
  • Mixed anaerobic culture
  • Reduction
  • Salmonella Typhimurium
  • Short chain fatty acids


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