Immunogenic cell death (ICD) occurring by chemical and physical stimuli has shown the potential to activate an adaptive immune response in the immune-competent living body through the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, limitations to the long-term immune responses and systemic toxicity of conventional ICD inducers have led to unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy in ICD-based cancer immunotherapy. Until now, various nanoparticle-based ICD-inducers have been developed to induce an antitumor immune response without severe toxicity, and to efficiently elicit an anticancer immune response against target cancer cells. In this review, we introduce a recent advance in the designs and applications of nanoparticle-based therapeutics to elicit ICD for effective cancer immunotherapy. In particular, combination strategies of nanoparticle-based ICD inducers with typical theranostic modalities are introduced intensively. Subsequently, we discuss the expected challenges and future direction of nanoparticle-based ICD inducers to provide strategies for boosting ICD in cancer immunotherapy. These versatile designs and applications of nanoparticle-based therapeutics for ICD can provide advantages to improve the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Mid-Career Researcher Program (NRF-2019R1A2C3006283), the Basic Science Research Program (NRF-2017R1A6A3A04011564), the KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology (Korea University) and the Intramural Research Program of KIST.
© 2021 The Royal Society of Chemistry.