Aim: The presence of periodontal disease (PD) at a single time point has been suggested as a predictor of diabetes risk, but whether changes in PD status are associated with altered risk of diabetes is yet to be reported on a population scale. This study investigated whether recovery from or development of PD in a population is associated with an altered risk of diabetes occurrence. Materials and Methods: Data of subjects who received health screening from 2002 to 2007 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service–National Health Screening cohort database of Korea. Patients with a history of diabetes were excluded. Changes in PD status were determined from the first two health screenings. Study subjects were divided into four groups according to the changes in PD status: PD-free, PD-recovered, PD-developed, and PD-chronic. The outcome was the occurrence of diabetes. Results: Overall, 111,611 subjects were included for analysis. During a median follow-up of 9.10 years, diabetes developed in 6102 subjects. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes across various PD change groups (in reference to the PD-free group) were as follows: PD-chronic group = 1.096 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.026–1.170, p =.006); PD-developed group = 1.073 (95% CI 0.993–1.159, p =.075); and PD-recovered group = 1.019 (95% CI 0.945–1.100, p =.622). The subjects who recovered from PD had a lower diabetes risk than those who had consistent PD (adjusted HR 0.930, 95% CI 0.865–1.000, p =.050), whereas those who developed PD had a higher risk of diabetes than those who remained PD-free. Conclusion: The longitudinal change in PD status is associated with incident diabetes risk. Future intervention studies are necessary to determine whether PD treatment can prevent incident diabetes.
- diabetes mellitus
- periodontal disease