Recent advances in conductive hydrogels: classifications, properties, and applications

Tianxue Zhu, Yimeng Ni, Gill M. Biesold, Yan Cheng, Mingzheng Ge, Huaqiong Li, Jianying Huang, Zhiqun Lin, Yuekun Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hydrogel-based conductive materials for smart wearable devices have attracted increasing attention due to their excellent flexibility, versatility, and outstanding biocompatibility. This review presents the recent advances in multifunctional conductive hydrogels for electronic devices. First, conductive hydrogels with different components are discussed, including pure single network hydrogels based on conductive polymers, single network hydrogels with additional conductive additives (i.e., nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanosheets), double network hydrogels based on conductive polymers, and double network hydrogels with additional conductive additives. Second, conductive hydrogels with a variety of functionalities, including self-healing, super toughness, self-growing, adhesive, anti-swelling, antibacterial, structural color, hydrophobic, anti-freezing, shape memory and external stimulus responsiveness are introduced in detail. Third, the applications of hydrogels in flexible devices are illustrated (i.e., strain sensors, supercapacitors, touch panels, triboelectric nanogenerator, bioelectronic devices, and robot). Next, the current challenges facing hydrogels are summarized. Finally, an imaginative but reasonable outlook is given, which aims to drive further development in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-509
Number of pages37
JournalChemical Society Reviews
Volume52
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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