Background. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomeruli. PAI-1 is up-regulated by high glucose and is overexpressed in diabetic kidney. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate ECM accumulation in diabetic glomeruli and was recently found to mediate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced PAI-1 up-regulation in glomerular mesangial cells, we examined the role of ROS in high glucose-induced PAI-1 expression in cultured glomerular mesangial cells and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat glomeruli. Methods. Growth arrested and synchronized primary rat mesangial cells were treated with different concentrations of glucose in the presence or absence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or trolox, or after cellular reduced form of glutathione (GSH) depleted with DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Taurine was administered to diabetic rats from 2 days to 4 weeks after streptozotocin injection. Urinary protein excretion, glomerular volume, and fractional mesangial area were measured as markers of renal injury and lipid peroxide (LPO) as an oxidative stress marker. PAI-1 mRNA expression was measured by Northern blot analysis in mesangial cells and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in glomeruli, PAI-1 protein by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and plasmin activity by fluorometry. Results. High glucose significantly increased PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression and decreased plasmin activity in mesangial cells. Equimolar concentrations of L-glucose or mannitol did not affect PAI-1 expression. BSO pretreatment significantly increased basal PAI-1 expression and amplified the response to high glucose. NAC effectively inhibited high glucose-induced, but not basal, PAI-1 expression. Reduced plasmin activity in mesangial cells by high glucose was rescued by antioxidants.
- Extracellular matrix
- Oxidative stress