8-Cl-cAMP, which is known to induce differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in various cancer cells, has been investigated as a putative anti-cancer drug. Previously, we reported that 8-Cl-cAMP and its metabolite 8-Cl-adenosine induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. To further investigate the signal mechanisms that regulate the cellular effects of 8-Cl-cAMP, we focused on a small GTPase Rap1 that is known to be involved in growth inhibition and reverse-transformation. 8-Cl-cAMP and 8-Cl-adenosine could increase Rap1 activity, which was blocked by ABT702-an adenosine kinase inhibitor. This suggests that 8-Cl-cAMP-induced Rap1 activation is also dependent on the metabolic degradation of 8-Cl-cAMP. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant form of Rap1 (Rap1V12) attenuated cellular growth and soft-agar colony formation, which was basically the same effect as that observed with the 8-Cl-cAMP treatment. Furthermore, the Rap1V12 transfectant showed a high level of p38 MAPK activation. However, 8-Cl-cAMP-induced Rap1 activation was not diminished by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, suggesting that Rap1 activation might act upstream of p38 MAPK activation during 8-Cl-cAMP-induced growth inhibition.