Quantum Sensing of Thermoelectric Power in Low-Dimensional Materials

Mali Zhao, Dohyun Kim, Young Hee Lee, Heejun Yang, Suyeon Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Thermoelectric power, has been extensively studied in low-dimensional materials where quantum confinement and spin textures can largely modulate thermopower generation. In addition to classical and macroscopic values, thermopower also varies locally over a wide range of length scales, and is fundamentally linked to electron wave functions and phonon propagation. Various experimental methods for the quantum sensing of localized thermopower have been suggested, particularly based on scanning probe microscopy. Here, critical advances in the quantum sensing of thermopower are introduced, from the atomic to the several-hundred-nanometer scales, including the unique role of low-dimensionality, defects, spins, and relativistic effects for optimized power generation. Investigating the microscopic nature of thermopower in quantum materials can provide insights useful for the design of advanced materials for future thermoelectric applications. Quantum sensing techniques for thermopower can pave the way to practical and novel energy devices for a sustainable society.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2106871
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number27
StatePublished - 6 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.Z. and D.K. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development (UG180123RD), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF‐2021M3H4A1A03054856, the KAIST‐funded Global Singularity Research Program for 2021, and the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics, under project no. SRFC‐MA1701‐01.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • low dimensional materials
  • quantum sensing
  • scanning probe microscopy
  • scanning thermoelectric microscopy
  • thermoelectric power


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