Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy using pure hemi-periareolar incision without extension and with the aid of indocyanine green angiographic evaluation on the mastectomy skin flap. Methods: Patients who underwent immediate direct-to-implant breast reconstruction from December 2018 to February 2020 were included. After nipple-sparing mastectomy, indocyanine green angiographic evaluation of perfusion to nipple-areola complex was performed by video recording with a near infrared camera, and nipple perfusion time and perfusion pattern were analyzed. Patients were divided into a pure hemi-periareolar incision group and conventional lateral radial incision groups to compare nipple perfusion and surgical outcomes. Results: A total of 61 breasts in 56 patients were included. Pure hemi-periareolar incision was used in 41 breasts, and conventional lateral radial incisions were used in 20 breasts. Nipple perfusion time was significantly increased in the pure hemi-periareolar incision group (79.6±65.8 vs. 43.2±49.8 seconds, P=0.031). While minor nipple-areola complex necrosis was significantly increased in the pure hemi-periareolar incision group (19.5% versus 0%; P=0.044), major nipple-areola complex necrosis (2.4% versus 5.0%; P>0.999) was not significantly different between the two groups. The rates of nipple-areola complex necrosis were 0%, 16.7%, and 63.6% in rapid, delayed, and no perfusion groups, respectively (P<0.001). No nipple perfusion pattern was a significant predictor for nipple-areola complex necrosis in univariable and multivariable analyses (P<0.001). There was no case of reconstruction failure. Conclusions: Immediate direct-to-implant breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy using pure hemi-periareolar incision can be safely performed using indocyanine green angiographic evaluation on the mastectomy skin flap.
|Number of pages||12|
|State||Published - Oct 2020|
- Direct-to-implant breast reconstruction; nipple-sparing mastectomy; indocyanine green; nipple-areola complex necrosis; mastectomy skin flap