Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is frequently mutated in human cancer, but its roles in lymphopoiesis and tissue homeostasis remain poorly defined. Here we show that PTEN orchestrates a two-step developmental process linking antigen receptor and IL-23–Stat3 signalling to type-17 innate-like T cell generation. Loss of PTEN leads to pronounced accumulation of mature IL-17-producing innate-like T cells in the thymus. IL-23 is essential for their accumulation, and ablation of IL-23 or IL-17 signalling rectifies the reduced survival of female PTEN-haploinsufficient mice that model human patients with PTEN mutations. Single-cell transcriptome and network analyses revealed the dynamic regulation of PTEN, mTOR and metabolic activities that accompanied type-17 cell programming. Furthermore, deletion of mTORC1 or mTORC2 blocks PTEN loss-driven type-17 cell accumulation, and this is further shaped by the Foxo1 and Stat3 pathways. Collectively, our study establishes developmental and metabolic signalling networks underpinning type-17 cell fate decisions and their functional effects at coordinating PTEN-dependent tissue homeostasis.