Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) or tinnitus in patients with type 2 diabetes using hospital- and population-based data. Methods: For the case-control study using the Asan Biomedical Research Environment database, the characteristics between cases and sex-, age- and index-year-matched controls were compared by the chi-squared test. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs). For the cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service – National Sample Cohort, the hazard ratios (HRs) for SNHL or tinnitus associated with PPI use were analysed by the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The case-control study included 1379 cases and 5512 matched controls. After adjustment, PPI use was associated with an increased risk of SNHL or tinnitus (OR 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.99). The ORs were higher for current or recent use of PPI and high average daily dose. In the cohort study including 17 233 pairs of PPI users and nonusers after propensity score matching, the risk of SNHL or tinnitus increased in PPI users compared with nonusers (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.40-1.61). In the stratified analyses, risks remained significant and the magnitude of association was relatively high in those of younger age, patients without gastroesophageal reflux disease and patients not receiving histamine 2 receptor blockers. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PPI use is associated with an increased risk of SNHL or tinnitus. Given the widespread use of PPIs, the potential ototoxic effects of PPIs remain an important concern.
- hospital-based case-control study
- population-based cohort study
- proton pump inhibitors
- sensorineural hearing loss