Objective: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to have chondroprotective effects on arthritic diseases. We investigated the effects of ESWT on temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) using rat chondrocytes and TMJOA rat models. Design: Cell viability and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cartilage degradation, and apoptosis markers were measured in control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-treated and ESWT plus MIA-treated chondrocytes in vitro, and intra-articular MIA injection (TMJOA) and ESWT on TMJOA rats in vivo. In vivo 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) and ex-vivo micro-CT and histologic examinations were performed in rat models. Results: ESWT plus MIA-treated chondrocytes showed increased cell viability significantly (P = 0.007), while decreased genetic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6); P < 0.001 for each] and cartilage degradation markers [matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7); P < 0.001 for each], and number of apoptotic cells (P < 0.001) compared to MIA-treated chondrocytes. Changes in cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 levels relative to procaspase-3 were decreased over MIA-treated chondrocytes. ESWT on TMJOA rat models was associated with a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory and cartilage degradation markers, as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry stains (P < 0.001 for each). On 99mTc-HDP SPECT/CT, the ESWT group showed a significantly lower uptake ratio compared to the TMJOA group (P = 0.008). Micro-CT analysis revealed that the ESWT group showed improved structure and bone quality compared to the TMJOA control group. Conclusions: ESWT was associated with a protective effect on cartilage and subchondral bone structures of TMJOA by reducing inflammation, cartilage degradation, and chondrocyte apoptosis.
- Extracorporeal shock wave
- Micro CT
- Single photon emission computed tomography
- Technetium 99m hydroxyethylene-diphosphonate
- Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis