Virus-like particles (VLPs) have emerged as promising vaccine candidates against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). However, such vaccines provide a relatively low level of protection against FMD virus (FMDV) because of their poor immunogenicity. Therefore, it is necessary to design effective vaccine strategies that induce more potent immunogenicity. In order to investigate the means to improve FMD VLP vaccine (VLPFMDV) immunogenicity, we encapsulated VLPs (MPL/DDA-VLPFMDV) with cationic liposomes based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and/or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL, TLR4 agonist) as adjuvants. Unlike inactivated whole-cell vaccines, VLPFMDV were successfully encapsulated in this MPL/DDA system. We found that MPL/DDA-VLPFMDV could induce strong cell-mediated immune responses by inducing not only VLP-specific IFN-γ+CD4+ (Th1), IL-17A+CD4+ (Th17), and IFN-γ+CD8+ (activated CD8 response) T cells, but also the development of VLP-specific multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells co-expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. In addition, the MPL/DDA-VLPFMDV vaccine markedly induced VLP-specific antibody titers; in particular, the vaccine induced greater Th1-predominant IgG responses than VLPFMDV only and DDA-VLPFMDV. These results are expected to provide important clues for the development of an effective VLPFMDV that can induce cellular and humoral immune responses, and address the limitations seen in current VLP vaccines for various diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Grants NRF-2017M2A2A6A02020925, NRF-2018K2A206023828, and NRF-2020M2D8A3094054 to H.S.S., NRF-2019R1C1C1002484 to E.-B.B., and NRF-2018R1D1A1B07048399 to J.H.L.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Foot-and-mouth disease
- TLR4 agonist
- Virus-like particles