Prognostic impact of neutrophilia and lymphopenia on survival in anal cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy: a retrospective multicenter study

Eunji Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Wonguen Jung, Kyubo Kim, Ah Ram Chang, Hae Jin Park, Hyeon Kang Koh, Semie Hong, Kyung Hwan Kim, Jee Suk Chang, Woong Sub Koom, Won Il Jang, Mi Sook Kim

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: This study evaluated the prognostic value of leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts in anal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: Multi-institutional retrospective data review included 148 non-metastatic anal cancer patients treated with definitive CCRT with 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C between the year 2001 and 2019. The median radiation dose to the primary tumor was 54 Gy with a median pelvic dose of 45 Gy. Median follow-up duration was 56 months, and complete blood cell counts were analyzed from baseline to 1 year after the completion of radiotherapy. Results: Although most patients showed a normal number of blood cells before treatment, 6.1% and 4.1% of patients showed leukocytosis (> 10,000/μl) and neutrophilia (> 7500/μl), respectively. After the initiation of treatment, seven patients (4.7%) displayed grade 4 lymphopenia (< 200/μl) at 1 month. Patients with initial leukocytosis showed inferior progression- and locoregional progression-free survival, and neutrophilia was a prognostic factor in all survival outcomes. Grade 4 lymphopenia at 1 month was also significantly associated with overall, progression-, and distant metastasis-free survival. On multivariate analyses, baseline neutrophilia was associated with 56.8-, 22.6-, 10.7-, and 23.0-fold increased risks of death, disease relapse, locoregional progression, and distant metastasis, respectively. Furthermore, lymphocytes < 200/μl at 1 month was linked to 6.8-, 5.4-, and 6.3-fold increased risks for death, disease relapse, and distant metastasis, respectively. Conclusion: The number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils readily acquired from routine blood tests before and during treatment could be an independent prognostic factor of survival in patients with anal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)553-562
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Oncology
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma
  • Chemoradiotherapy
  • Lymphopenia
  • Neutrophilia
  • Survival

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