Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the prognosis and identify factors that contribute to rebleeding after bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in patients with active or inactive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Methods: Following a retrospective review, 190 patients had hemoptysis requiring BAE due to PTB in one hospital between 2006 and 2013. Results: The median age at the time of diagnosis of PTB was 37 years and 54 years at the time of first episode of hemoptysis. Among 47 patients (24.7 %) who experienced rebleeding after BAE during the median follow-up period of 13.9 months [interquartile range (IQR) 2.3–36.0 months], bleeding recurred in 12 patients (6.3 %) within 1 month and in 15 patients (7.9 %) after 1 year. The median non-recurrence time was 8.6 months (IQR 1.2–27.6 months). Independent predictors of rebleeding after BAE were tuberculous-destroyed lung [hazard ratio (HR) 3.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5–6.2; p = 0.003], the use of anticoagulant agents and/or antiplatelet agents (HR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.1–5.8; p = 0.022), underlying chronic liver disease (HR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.1–4–6.9; p = 0.033), elevated pre-BAE C-reactive protein (CRP) (mg/dL) (HR 2.4; 95 % CI 1.0–5.5; p = 0.048), and the existence of fungal ball (HR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.0–4.3; p = 0.050). Conclusions: The risk of rebleeding after BAE in active or inactive PTB was high, particularly in patients with tuberculous-destroyed lung, chronic liver disease, the use of anticoagulant agents and/or antiplatelet agents, elevated pre-BAE CRP, and the existence of fungal ball.
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© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
- Bronchial artery embolization
- Pulmonary tuberculosis