Profiles of resilience among children exposed to non-maltreatment adverse childhood experiences

Susan Yoon, Nathan Helsabeck, Xiafei Wang, Jessica Logan, Fei Pei, Sherry Hamby, Natasha Slesnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Considering the high prevalence and negative consequences of non-maltreatment adverse childhood experiences (NM-ACEs), it is critical to understand their impacts on the resilient functioning of young children. This study sought to examine heterogeneity in resilience among first-grade children who were exposed to NM-ACEs during kindergarten and explore demographic and adversity characteristics that distinguish between resilience profiles. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted on 4929 children drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergar-ten (ECLS-K). The results of the LPA revealed four distinct resilience profiles: (1) low cognitive and executive functioning (4%); (2) low social and behavioral functioning (14%); (3) low average functioning (31%); and (4) multi-domain resilience (51%). Female children and those in families characterized by older maternal age, higher parental education level, household income above 200% federal poverty level, not receiving welfare benefits, and races other than Black were more likely to be in the multi-domain resilience profile. The findings highlight heterogeneity in resilience among children exposed to NM-ACEs and point to the need for a comprehensive, multi-domain assessment of child functioning to support optimal resilience development in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10600
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number20
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)
  • Children
  • Kindergarten
  • Latent profile analysis
  • Resilience


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