Preservatives are essential additives in dishwashing detergents and wet wipes. Ensuring the safe use of preservatives in products is important for public health, as some preservatives are associated with health issues. In this study, the content of 12 preservatives in 105 dishwashing detergents and 105 wet wipes was determined, where these compounds are commonly found, among consumer products. A realistic exposure estimation was considered by using Korean consumer-specific exposure parameters for adults and babies. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted by applying the Monte Carlo simulation method. Benzoic acid (41%) and cetylpyridinium chloride (30%) were the most commonly used preservatives in dishwashing detergents and wet wipes, respectively, although their content in different products (benzoic acid: 0.28–19.4 mg/g in dishwashing detergents; cetylpyridinium chloride: 0.003–0.64 mg/g in wet wipes) varied widely. The calculated median and upper-limit margin of safety (MOS) values related to systemic health effects and skin sensitization from exposure to preservatives largely exceeded the target MOS, which confirmed the safety of the products. Exposure to preservatives from wet wipes was several times higher in babies than in adults. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the amount of the product used, frequency of use, and weight fraction of the preservative were the major contributors to the exposure to preservatives from dishwashing detergents and wet wipes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant ( 19162MFDS016 ) from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety , Republic of Korea, Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Technology Program for establishing biocide safety management Program, funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) ( 2019002490005 , 1485016722 ), and a Korea University Grant.
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- Consumer products
- Margin of safety
- Monte Carlo simulation
- Risk assessment