Printing Optimization of 3D Structure with Lard-like Texture Using a Beeswax-Based Oleogels

Hyeona Kang, Yourim Oh, Nam Keun Lee, Jin Kyu Rhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, we investigated the optimal conditions for 3D structure printing of alternative fats that have the textural properties of lard using beeswax (BW)-based oleogel by a statistical analysis. Products printed with over 15% BW oleogel at 50% and 75% infill level (IL) showed high printing accuracy with the lowest dimensional printing deviation for the designed model. The hardness, cohesion, and adhesion of printed samples were influenced by BW concentration and infill level. For multi-response optimization, fixed target values (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were applied with lard printed at 75% IL. The preparation parameters obtained as a result of multiple reaction prediction were 58.9% IL and 16.0% BW, and printing with this oleogel achieved fixed target values similar to those of lard. In conclusion, our study shows that 3D printing based on the BW oleogel system produces complex internal structures that allow adjustment of the textural properties of the printed samples, and BW oleogels could potentially serve as an excellent replacement for fat.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1573-1582
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 28 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by grants provided by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2018R1D1A1B07045349 and 2021R1F1A1056188), the High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (321021031HD030), the Technology development Program of MSS (S3251721), Republic of Korea, and RP-Grant 2019 and Research Grant 2019-2021 of Ewha Womans University.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 by the authors.


  • 3D food printing
  • alternative fat
  • beeswax oleogels
  • texture


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