Background: Several international study groups adopted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index adjusted by (1) height squared, (2) weight, and (3) body mass index (BMI) in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. However, different prevalence rates of sarcopenia by each index and clinical implications were not well known. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in (1) the percentage of sarcopenia in hip fracture patients and (2) the relative mortality rate according to the sarcopenia criteria of three ASM indices. Methods: Between January 2009 and December 2020, 1003 older adult hip fracture patients at a tertiary institution were eligible and retrospectively reviewed for this study. Based on the ASM measured on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, three indices were calculated, and sarcopenia was diagnosed. The proportion of sarcopenia was evaluated according to each index. One, two, and five-year mortality rates were compared between each sarcopenia group and a normal musculature group, based on ASM criteria. Results: The proportion of sarcopenia patients differed according to three ASM indices. The proportion of sarcopenic patients by ASM/height2 index was higher than those of the other two indices in both male and female hip fracture patients. In male patients, 61% were sarcopenic by ASM/height2 index, 37% by ASM/weight index, and 44% by ASM/BMI index. In female patients, 26%, 11%, and 14% were sarcopenic, respectively. Among the three indices, only ASM/height2 had significant correlations with all 1-, 2-, and 5-year mortality rates. Conclusions and Implications: The prevalence of sarcopenia in hip fracture patients differed substantially according to ASM indices. Sarcopenic hip fracture patients had a higher mortality rate than those with normal musculature. The 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year mortality rates were discriminated by ASM/height2 criteria in both men and women. Future prospective studies in a larger cohort are warranted.
- appendicular skeletal muscle mass index
- hip fracture