Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a developmental and congenital disorder characterized by neurocognitive impairment, structural defects, and growth restriction due to prenatal alcohol exposure. The estimated global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy is 9.8%, and the estimated prevalence of FAS in the general population is 14.6 per 10,000 people. In Korea, the estimated prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy is 16%, and the prevalence of FAS is 18-51 per 10,000 women, which is higher than the global prevalence. Women’s alcohol consumption rates have increased, especially in women of childbearing age. This could increase the incidence of FAS, leading to higher medical expenses and burden on society. Alcohol is the single most important teratogen that causes FAS, and there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol and no known safe amount of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Thus, physicians should assess women’s drinking patterns in detail and provide education on FAS to women by understanding its pathophysiology. Moreover, the prevention of FAS requires long-term care with a multidisciplinary approach.
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
- Fetal alcohol syndrome