Predictive Modeling of Ungulate–Vehicle Collision in the Republic of Korea

Kyungmin Kim, Desiree Andersen, Yikweon Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Animal–vehicle collisions (AVC) threaten animals as well as human life and property. AVC with ungulates, called ungulate–vehicle collision (UVC), often seriously endangers human safety because of the considerable body size of ungulates. In the Republic of Korea, three ungulate species, Capreolus pygargus, Hydropotes inermis, and Sus scrofa, account for a large proportion of AVC. This study aimed to understand the characteristics of UVC by examining various parameters related to habitat, traffic, and seasonality using MaxEnt. The results showed that the peak UVC seasons coincided with the most active seasonal behaviors of the studied ungulates. For the modeling results, in C. pygargus, habitat variables are most important for models across seasons, and UVC events are most likely to occur in high mountain chains. In H. inermis, habitat and traffic variables are most important for models across seasons. Although the important habitat for the models were different across seasons for S. scrofa, the maximum speed was consistently critical for models across all seasons. Factors critical to UVC in the Republic of Korea were different for the three ungulate species and across seasons, indicating that seasonal behavior should be considered along with landscape and traffic characteristics to mitigate UVC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1068
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • fragmentation
  • roadkill
  • seasonal behavior
  • spatial modeling
  • ungulate–vehicle collision


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