The duration of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a critical factor that determines the duration of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate factors affecting the PTBD duration in patients who underwent percutaneous treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. This study analyzed data of 169 patients who underwent percutaneous treatment of CBD stones from June 2009 to June 2019. Demographic data, characteristics of stone, procedure-related factors, and laboratory findings before the insertion of PTBD tubes were retrospectively evaluated. To assess the effect of confounding factors on the PTBD duration, multivariate linear regression analysis was applied, incorporating significant predictive factors identified in the univariate regression analysis. In the univariate regression analysis, the predictive factor that showed high correlation with the PTBD duration was the initial total bilirubin level (coefficient = 0.68, P <.001) followed by the short diameter of the largest stone (coefficient = 0.19, P =.056), and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy (coefficient = -2.50, P =.086). The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the initial total bilirubin level (coefficient = 0.50, P <.001) and short diameter of the largest stone (coefficient = 0.16, P =.025) were significantly related to the PTBD duration. The total bilirubin level before PTBD tube insertion and the short diameter of the largest CBD stone were predictive factors for the PTBD duration in patients who underwent percutaneous CBD stone removal. Careful assessment of these factors might help in predicting the treatment period, thereby improving the quality of patient care.