Potential Pro-Tumorigenic Effect of Bisphenol A in Breast Cancer via Altering the Tumor Microenvironment

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13 Scopus citations


BPA, a chemical used in the preparation of polycarbonate plastics, is an endocrine disruptor. Exposure to BPA has been suggested to be a risk factor for breast cancer because of its potential to induce estrogen receptor signaling in breast cancer cells. More recently, it has been recognized that BPA also binds to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor and other nuclear receptors, in addition to estrogen receptors, and acts on immune cells, adipocytes, and fibroblasts, potentially modulating the TME. The TME significantly impacts the behavior of cancer cells. Therefore, understanding how BPA affects stromal components in breast cancer is imperative to adequately assess the association between exposure to BPA and the risk of breast cancer. This review examines the effects of BPA on stromal components of tumors to highlight their potential role in the carcinogenic effect of BPA. As a result, I propose considerations for the risk assessment of BPA exposure and studies needed to improve understanding of the TME-mediated, breast cancer-promoting effect of BPA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3021
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
: © 2022 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • adipocytes
  • bisphenol A
  • breast cancer
  • endocrine disruptors
  • extracellular matrices
  • fi-broblasts
  • immune cells
  • tumor microenvironment


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