Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated the hypoglycemic effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf and the underlying mechanisms. Here we explored the potency of mulberry twigs (TW) and root barks (RB) in postprandial hypoglycemic effects in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The major components of TW and RB were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Alpha-glucosidase inhibition and glucose/fructose uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells were determined for TW, RB, and their major components, followed by an oral sugar tolerance test (OSTT) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet for 2 weeks and then a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg B.W) was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 126 mg/dL were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8/group) for the following treatments by gavage for 4 weeks: vehicle (normal control and diabetic control), 200 mg/kg B.W of TW or RB or 100 mg/kg B.W of oxyresveratrol (OXY). Results: OXY and mulberroside A were identified as the major components of TW and OXY, mongolicin, and kuwanon H for RB. A significant inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase was found for TW, RB, and OXY (p = 0.0099). There was a dose-dependent inhibition of TW and RB on the intestinal sugar uptakes in Caco-2 cells, showing a greater impact on fructose compared to glucose. The OSTT showed that TW and RB significantly delayed time to maximal concentration (p = 0.0088) and decreased maximal concentration (p = 0.0043) compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that TW and RB may have a postprandial hypoglycemic effect, particularly in the case of high fructose or sucrose intake. OXY was suggested as a contributor to the hypoglycemic effect of TW and RB. Further studies are needed for the systemic effect of TW and RB in circulation.
- Caco-2 cells
- Postprandial hypoglycemic effect
- α-glucosidase inhibition