Study Design: Single-center, retrospective case series. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of posterior vertebrectomy and circumferential fusion in patients with advanced Kümmell disease with neurologic deficit. Overview of Literature: Various surgical options exist for the treatment of Kümmell disease, and determination of the appropriate treatment is based on the clinical and radiologic status of the patient. However, surgical intervention is required for patients with advanced Kümmell disease accompanied by neurologic deficit. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 22 neurologically compromised patients with advanced Kümmell disease who were treated surgically at Ewha Womans Hospital between January 2011 and January 2014. The surgical approach used by us was a posterior vertebrectomy with mesh cage insertion and segmental cement-augmented pedicle screw fixation. The tissue from the corpectomy was histopathologically examined. Anterior vertebral height, kyphotic angle, visual analog scale (VAS) score, and the Frankel classification were used to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. Results: The mean follow-up period was 26 months (range, 13-40 months). VAS score, anterior vertebral height, kyphotic angle, and neurologic state were significantly improved immediately postoperatively and at the last follow-up compared with preoperatively (p < 0.05). Most patients exhibited intravertebral clefts on imaging, and postoperative pathology revealed bone necrosis. Conclusions: Posterior vertebrectomy with mesh cage insertion and segmental cement-augmented pedicle screw fixation is an effective approach for treating patients with advanced Kümmell disease with neurologic deficit.