Possibility of condensation of nitric acid for cloud condensation nucleus in the summer at Mt. Fuji

Kojiro Shimada, Yoshun Geka, Shungo Kato, Chak K. Chan, Yong Pyo Kim, Chang Feng Ou-Yang, Neng Huei Lin, Shiro Hatakeyama

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We carried out measurements of size-segregated ionic and elemental components of aerosols at the Mt. Fuji, Japan, in the summers of 2013 and 2015. We studied aerosol chemistry in the free troposphere (FT). We investigated ratios of elements and the transformation of nitrate in long-range transported air pollution (LRTAP) mixed with domestic air pollution (DAP). We distinguished aerosols from LRTAP during daytime (D) and nighttime (N) and DAP (D) at a relative humidity of 80% based on CALIPSO satellite, back-trajectory analysis, volatile organic carbon (VOC) tracers, and elements. We identified the sources of LRTAP and DAP. DAP containing Zn and high concentrations of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) was transported by valley winds from and forests near the foothill of the mountain. The contribution of BVOCs and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from the forest was high in FT. LRTAP containing high concentrations of VOCs and Pb was transported from China. The contribution of SOAs in LRTAP (N) was higher at Mt. Fuji than at a remote site in Okinawa. A comparison of chlorine loss in this study with the remote site revealed that HNO3 was absorbed in coarse particles in LRTAP (D) from urban sites when LRTAP (D) was mixed with DAP. When (NH4) 2 NO3 was degraded to NH3 and HNO3 during transport to Mt. Fuji, the high excess-HNO3 was absorbed in the aqueous phase without neutralization. This result indicates that nitrate can be enriched during cloud processes when LRTAP (D) is mixed with DAP.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101940
JournalAtmospheric Pollution Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control


  • Long range transport
  • Mountain site
  • Size-segregated elements
  • Size-segregated ion components


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