Positive fecal immunochemical test results are associated with increased risks of esophageal, stomach, and small intestine cancers

Yoon Suk Jung, Jinhee Lee, Chang Mo Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The current guideline does not recommend upper gastrointestinal evaluation for patients with a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and negative colonoscopy results. However, this indication was based on low-quality evidence as data on this issue are very limited. We assessed the risk of proximal cancers (oral or throat, esophageal, stomach, and small intestine cancers) after negative or positive FIT results in the Korean National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). Methods: Using the NCSP databases, we collected data on participants who underwent FIT between 2009 and 2011. Participants were classified based on FIT results and colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed within 1 year after FIT as FIT− (n = 5,551,755), FIT+/CRC− (n = 368,553), and FIT+/CRC+ (n = 12,236). Results: The incidence rates of overall proximal cancers in FIT−, FIT+/CRC−, and FIT+/CRC+ patients within 1, 2, and 3 years after FIT were 0.38%, 0.68%, and 2.26%; 0.57%, 0.93%, and 2.74%; and 0.79%, 1.21%, and 3.15%, respectively. After adjusting confounding variables, the risks of esophageal, stomach, and small intestine cancers as well as overall proximal cancers within 1, 2, and 3 years after FIT were higher in FIT+/CRC− patients than those in FIT− patients. However, the risk of oral or throat cancer did not differ between FIT− and FIT+/CRC− patients. The risks for oral or throat cancer and small intestine cancer were higher in FIT+/CRC+ patients than those in FIT+/CRC− patients. Conclusions: In this population-based study, FIT+/CRC− patients were at higher risk for esophageal, stomach, and small intestine cancers than were FIT− patients, suggesting that positive FIT results were associated with these cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2172
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • Esophageal cancer
  • Fecal immunochemical test
  • Gastric cancer
  • Small intestine cancer

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