Purpose: To evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of teicoplanin in elderly critically ill patients with pneumonia for optimal dosages. Methods: Fifteen critically ill patients (9 men) ≥ 60 years received teicoplanin 6 mg/kg for three doses followed by standard maintenance doses (6 mg/kg q24h) with renal dosing adjustment. Serial plasma samples from all patients were analyzed simultaneously by population pharmacokinetic modeling using NONMEM. Probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated through Monte Carlo simulations for various dosing regimens to achieve adequate systemic exposures. Results: The median (interquartile range, IQR) age, body mass index, and creatinine clearance (CrCl) was 75 (64–78) years, 22.5 (20.8–25.4) kg/m2, and 64 (47–106) mL/min, respectively. The median (IQR) peak and trough concentration was 46.5 (42.7–51.0) and 8.7 (7.2–9.5) mg/L. The population pharmacokinetic model showed slower clearance (CL) and larger peripheral volume of distribution (V2) in patients with reduced CrCl: CL (L/h) = 0.629 × (CrCl/64)0.656, V2 (L) = 55.7 × (CrCl/64)-0.665. Model-based simulations showed PTAs ≥85% only for higher-dose regimens (12 mg/kg) up to an MIC of 0.5 mg/L. Conclusions: Standard teicoplanin dosages for pneumonia may provide inadequate systemic exposures in elderly critically ill patients. High-dose regimens should be considered as empiric therapy or for less susceptible pathogens.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
- Critical illness
- Monte Carlo simulation
- Population pharmacokinetics