Population pharmacokinetic analysis of oral tacrolimus in patients with glomerulonephritis

Mi Kyong Kim Shim, Jong Mann Kim, Kyoung Eob Choi, Myeong Gyu Kim, Nayoung Han, Eunhee Ji, Jung Mi Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Tacrolimus as an immunosuppressant is used to treat for several types of glomerulonephritis. Narrow therapeutic window and huge interindividual variability of tacrolimus make it impossible to predict its serum level. Hence, the purpose of this study was to derive population pharmacokinetic model for tacrolimus in glomerulonephritis patients. Materials and methods: Adult patients diagnosed with glomerulonephritis and treated with oral tacrolimus were included. Electronic medical records were reviewed retrospectively to access clinical findings and demographic data. Population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus was evaluated using nonlinear mixed effect model by first-order conditional estimation with interaction algorithm. Results: One hundred and forty-five patients were included in this study and one thousand and nine hundreds thirty-eight blood samples were analyzed. The estimated apparent clearance (CL/F) was 19.5 L/h, and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) was 380 L. The final model suggested that serum creatinine levels were negatively correlated with both CL/F and V/F whereas serum albumin levels were positively associated with V/F. Conclusion: Various factors affecting tacrolimus pharmacokinetics were explored. The findings of this study pointed out that tacrolimus pharmacokinetics were related to patients' kidney function and serum albumin level in glomerulonephritis patients. Developed model may guide individualized tacrolimus therapy in glomerulonephritis patients and improve therapeutic outcomes in glomerulonephritis patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110
JournalInternational journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright: © 2016 Shim et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Population pharmacokinetics
  • Tacrolimus


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