The Pim (proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus) proteins compose a serine threonine kinase family whose members regulate cell proliferation, migration and cell survival. However, whether Pim kinases participate in innate immune responses is unclear. Here, we show for the first time that Pim1 plays an essential role in the production of interferon (IFN)-β by macrophages after their Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway is activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Specifically, Pim1 was quickly upregulated in an NF-κB-dependent manner after TLR stimulation with PAMPs. Pim1 deficiency reduced TLR3- or TLR4-stimulated IFN-β and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression but not proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. Mechanistically, Pim1 specifically upregulates IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. However, this role is not dependent on Pim1 kinase activity. Rather, Pim1 appears to promote IRF3 phosphorylation by enhancing the formation of IFN-β signaling complexes composed of TRIF, TRAF3, TBK1, and IRF3. Poly (I:C)-treated Pim1−/− mice produced less serum IFN-β and were less likely to survive than wild-type mice. These findings show for the first time that Pim1 participates in TLR-mediated IFN-β production, thus revealing a novel target for controlling antiviral innate immune responses.