Pilot-scale subcritical water extraction of flavonoids from satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Markovich) peel

Min Jung Ko, Hye Lim Kwon, Myong Soo Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


The effects of operating parameters (extraction temperature, extraction time, material type, solute/solvent ratio, and pressure) on the subcritical water extraction of flavonoids from dried satsuma mandarin peel were studied. From the practical aspect, the optimum conditions for obtaining flavonoids by pilot-scale subcritical water extraction were as follows: extraction temperature of 130 °C, extraction time of 15 min, and solute/solvent ratio of 1/34. The yields of flavonoids obtained under laboratory and pilot conditions were similar: 117.8 and 113.4 mg/g satsuma mandarin peel, respectively. The proportion of flavonoids recovered by subcritical water extraction in the pilot plant was 96.3%, and large-scale experiments using this method demonstrate its potential industrial applications. Industrial relevance This study used a pilot-scale subcritical water extraction (SWE) plant (8 L scale) for the scale-up and commercialization of the SWE process that extracts antioxidant flavonoids from agricultural by-products such as Citrus unshiu Markovich. SWE is excellent technology to selectively extract flavonoids using temperature-dependent dielectric constant properties of water. The flavonoid yield from the pilot-scale SWE was similar to that obtained from laboratory-scale SWE. These results indicate that SWE is an efficient and rapid method for extracting flavonoids, and a safer product only using purified water. This method can be easily implemented on an industrial scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-181
Number of pages7
JournalInnovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (no. 2013R1A1A2A10060325 ). This work was also supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) ( 315063-3 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016


  • Flavonoids
  • Pilot scale
  • Satsuma mandarin peel
  • Subcritical water extraction


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