Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) threaten crop production worldwide. Yet few studies have examined their intraspecific genetic diversity or patterns of invasion, critical data for managing the spread of these cryptic pests. The sugar beet nematode Heterodera schachtii, a global invader that parasitizes over 200 plant species, represents a model for addressing important questions about the invasion genetics of PPNs. Here, a phylogeographic study using 15 microsatellite markers was conducted on 231 H. schachtii individuals sampled from four continents, and invasion history was reconstructed through an approximate Bayesian computation approach, with emphasis on the origin of newly discovered populations in Korea. Multiple analyses confirmed the existence of cryptic lineages within this species, with the Korean populations comprising one group (group 1) and the populations from Europe, Australia, North America, and western Asia comprising another (group 2). No multilocus genotypes were shared between the two groups, and large genetic distance was inferred between them. Population subdivision was also revealed among the populations of group 2 in both population comparison and STRUCTURE analyses, mostly due to different divergent times between invasive and source populations. The Korean populations showed substantial genetic homogeneity and likely originated from a single invasion event. However, none of the other studied populations were implicated as the source. Further studies with additional populations are needed to better describe the distribution of the potential source population for the East Asian lineage.
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© 2018 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- approximate Bayesian computation
- cryptic lineage
- cyst nematode
- ghost population
- invasion genetics