Considerable controversy exists in determining the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha PPARalpha) on obesity. Previous reports demonstrated that PPARalpha is a critical modulator of lipid homeostasis, but the overt, obese phenotypic characterization in the strain of PPAR deficient (PPARalpha-/-) mice is influenced by other factors, including diet and genetics. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the phenotypic characterization of PPARalpha-/- mice prior to the obesity-related study. In this study, we observed phenotype of PPARalpha-/- mice on mixed genetic background (C57BL/6Nx129/Sv) fed a high fat diet for 16 weeks. PPARalpha-/- mice, regardless of sex, raised body growth rate significantly comparing with wild type and showed male-specific fatty change in the liver. They were shown to lack hepatic induction of PPARalpha target genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid beta-oxidation.