Personal exposure of PM2.5 and metabolic syndrome markers of pregnant women in South Korea: APPO study

APPO study group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We examined the association between exposure to PM2.5, focused on individual exposure level, and metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy. APPO study (Air Pollution on Pregnancy Outcome) was a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study conducted from January 2021 to March 2023. Individual PM2.5 concentrations were calculated using a time-weighted average model. Metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy was assessed based on a modified definition of metabolic syndrome and its components, accounting for pregnancy-specific criteria. Exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy was associated with worsened metabolic parameters especially glucose metabolism. In comparison to participants exposed to the low PM2.5 group, those exposed to high PM2.5 levels exhibited increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after adjusting for confounding variables in different adjusted models. Specifically, in model 1, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 3.117 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.234-7.870; in model 2, the aOR was 3.855 with a 95% CI of 1.255-11.844; in model 3, the aOR was 3.404 with a 95% CI of 1.206-9.607; and in model 4, the aOR was 2.741 with a 95% CI of 0.712-10.547. Exposure to higher levels of PM2.5 during pregnancy was associated with a tendency to worsen metabolic dysfunction markers specifically in glucose homeostasis. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of ambient PM2.5 on metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123893-123906
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number59
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023. The Author(s).


  • Glucose intolerance
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Metabolic dysfunction
  • Particulate matter
  • Pregnancy complications


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