Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Although death rates of diabetic patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) have decreased substantially, they remain higher than rates in nondiabetics on both modalities. PD offers equal or better survival than hemodialysis for younger diabetic patients during early years of dialysis. PD technique survival does not appear different between diabetic and nondiabetic patients but is inferior to hemodialysis technique survival. PD may accelerate changes in peritoneal membrane structure and function in diabetics. Peritonitis and conventional PD solutions containing high glucose and glucose degradation products are implicated in PD technique failure. Increased peritoneal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 and excessive accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products may be involved in the progressive increase in membrane permeability, loss of ultrafiltration, and peritoneal fibrosis. Nonglucose PD solutions or solutions containing low glucose degradation products may prevent or delay alterations in peritoneal membrane structure and function in diabetic as well as nondiabetic patients during long-term PD.
- Advanced glycosylation end products
- Diabetes mellitus
- Peritoneal dialysis
- Transforming growth factor-β1
- Vascular endothelial growth factor