Pazopanib is an orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor mainly targeting VEGFR2 and PDGFR tyrosine kinases, but the biologic sequences of pazopanib activities beyond antiangiogenesis are poorly defined. We used a panel of 38 gastric cancer cell lines to test the efficacy of pazopanib. In a growth inhibition assay, genomic changes indicated that pazopanib had differential effects on cell growth. Treatment of the KATO-III, OCUM-2M, SNU-16, and HSC-39 gastric cancer cell lines harboring FGFR2 amplification with pazopanib resulted in marked decreases of cell survival with IC50 in ranges of 0.1 to 2.0 μmol/L, whereas the same treatment of those cell lines without FGFR2 amplification had no growth-inhibitory effects. In the ectopic FGFR2-expressing model, treatment with the indicated concentrations of pazopanib significantly inhibited cell growth and colony formation by FGFR2-expressing NIH 3T3 cells with wild-type (WT) FGFR2 and mutant FGFR2 (S252W). Pazopanib also selectively suppressed constitutive FGFR2 signaling and phosphorylation of downstream effectors. In cell-cycle analysis, FGFR2-amplified cells underwent cell-cycle arrest at the G1-S phase after pazopanib treatment, whereas there were no significant effects on cell-cycle progression in cells without FGFR2 amplification treated with pazopanib. In addition, pazopanib increased a substantial fraction of sub-G1 only in FGFR2-amplified cells. These findings show that the activation of FGFR2 signaling by amplification may be a critical mediator of cell proliferation in a small subset of gastric cancer patients and that pazopanib may provide genotype-correlated clinical benefits beyond the setting of highly vascular tumors.