Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of temperament and character of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to explore the relationship between the patterns of temperament and character and PTSD symptoms severity. Methods: Temperament and character features of 130 patients with PTSD (n = 65) and age and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Severity of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety symptoms was measured with the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). Results: Patients with PTSD showed significantly higher scores on subscales of harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower scores on self-directedness and cooperativeness compared to controls. Harm avoidance and self-transcendence scores were significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity as measured by IES-R but not with general anxiety symptom severity as measured by HARS. Conclusions: Patterns of temperament and character of patients with PTSD were significantly different from those of healthy controls. In addition, these patterns are specifically associated with the PTSD symptom severity.