Patterns of locoregional recurrences and suggestion of the clinical target volume in resected perihilar extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Younghee Park, Wonguen Jung, Kyubo Kim, Ah Ram Chang, Hae Jin Park, Hyeon Kang Koh, Byoung Hyuck Kim

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Purpose: To evaluate the patterns of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with perihilar extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (PEHC) treated with radical resection and to suggest the optimal target volume for elective nodal irradiation. Methods: Medical records of PEHC patients who underwent radical resection between January 2000 and September 2021 at five institutions were reviewed. Patients who were confirmed with LRR in the follow-up imaging study were included. The LRR sites were mapped onto the corresponding sites in template computed tomography images. The margin around the vascular structure was investigated to generate the clinical target volume (CTV) covering the common sites of regional recurrences. Results: A total of 87 LRRs in 46 patients were identified, 29 (33.3%) of which were local recurrences and 58 (66.7%) were regional recurrences. The most common site of local recurrence was the liver resection margin (n = 16), followed by the anastomosis site (n = 8). Regional recurrences were observed most commonly in the para-aortic area (n = 13), followed by in the aortocaval space (n = 11), portal vein area (n = 11), and portocaval area (n = 9). Nodal CTV was generated by adding an individualized margin around the portal vein, aorta, common hepatic artery, celiac artery, and left gastric artery. Conclusions: The LRR patterns in the resected PEHC were evaluated and specific guidelines for nodal CTV delineation were provided, which may help physicians delineating the target volume in postoperative radiotherapy for PEHC. These findings need further validation in a lager cohort.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100646
JournalClinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
StatePublished - Jul 2023

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© 2023 The Author(s)


  • Clinical target volume
  • Locoregional recurrence
  • Perihilar extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  • Radiotherapy


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