Pathogenetic factors involved in recurrent pregnancy loss from multiple aspects

Chang Zhu Pei, Young Ju Kim, Kwang Hyun Baek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a common complication in obstetrics, affecting about 5% of women of childbearing age. An increase in the number of abortions results in escalation in the risk of miscarriage. Although concentrated research has identified numerous causes for RPL, about 50% of them remain unexplained. Pregnancy is a complex process, comprising fertilization, implantation, organ and tissue differentiation, and fetal growth, which is effectively controlled by a number of both maternal and fetal factors. An example is the immune response, in which T cells and natural killer cells participate, and inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor or colony-stimulating factor, which hinders embryo implantation. Furthermore, vitamin D affects glucose metabolism and inhibits embryonic development, whereas microRNA has a negative effect on the gene expression of embryo implantation and development. This review examines the causes of RPL from multiple perspectives, and focuses on the numerous factors that may result in RPL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)212-223
Number of pages12
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank the members of the Molecular Signal Transduction Laboratory at CHA University. This study was supported by the Ministry of Health & Welfare of the Republic of Korea (Grant number, HI18C0378) through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.


  • Proteomics
  • Recurrent miscarriage
  • Vitamin D


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