Particulate PAHs levels at Mt. Halla site in Jeju Island, Korea: Regional background levels in northeast Asia

Ji Yi Lee, Yong Pyo Kim, Naoki Kaneyasu, Hidetoshi Kumata, Chang Hee Kang

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16 Scopus citations

Abstract

The levels of PM.25 PAHs at Mt. Halla site, Jeju Island, a background site in Korea were observed between March 1999 and March 2002. A seasonal variation was observed for the particulate PAHs concentrations with high levels during cold season similar to Gosan, a nearby coastal background site, due to the seasonal variations of fossil fuel usage in Asia. The total average concentration of ambient particulate PAHs was 404 ± 579 pg m- 3, about one order lower than the ambient level at Gosan. However, the ratios of the anthropogenic inorganic ion concentrations between Mt. Halla and Gosan were smaller, 1.5 for non sea-salt (nss) sulfate and 2.7 for nitrate. Two possible explanations for these characteristics are (1) two sites measured different air parcels and/or (2) the effect of local emissions were different at two sites. Based on the Bep/BaP ratio result, upper air wind direction data, backward trajectory analysis, and LIDAR measurement data at Gosan, it was found that the degree of the effects of local emissions to the sampling sites be the major reason for the different PAHs levels at two sites though, in some cases, the air parcels arriving at Mt. Halla were different from those arriving at Gosan. For secondary aerosol such as nss sulfate, the lower concentration difference indicates both site are affected by regional transport. It points that the measurement result for directly emitted species such as PAHs at Gosan might be significantly influenced by local emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-98
Number of pages8
JournalAtmospheric Research
Volume90
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2008

Keywords

  • Jeju Island
  • Local emission effect
  • Long-range transport
  • Primary aerosols
  • Secondary aerosols

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