Particulate nitrosamines and nitramines in Seoul and their major sources: Primary emission versus secondary formation

Na Rae Choi, Yun Gyong Ahn, Ji Yi Lee, Eunhye Kim, Soontae Kim, Seung Myung Park, In Ho Song, Hye Jung Shin, Yong Pyo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Seven nitrosamines and three nitramines in particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) collected in 2018 in Seoul, South Korea, were quantified. Annual mean concentrations of the sum of nitrosamines and nitramines were 9.81 ± 18.51 and 1.12 ± 0.70 ng/m3, respectively, and nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) and dimethyl-nitramine (DMN) comprised the largest portion of nitrosamines and nitramines, respectively. Statistical analyses such as nonparametric correlation analysis, positive matrix factorization, analysis of covariance, and orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis were carried out to identify contribution of the atmospheric reactions in producing NDMA and DMN. In addition, kinetic calculation using reaction information obtained from the previous chamber studies was performed to estimate concentrations of NDMA and DMN that might be produced from the atmospheric reactions. It was concluded that (1) the atmospheric reactions contributed to the concentrations of NDMA more than they did for those of DMN, (2) the contribution of atmospheric reactions to the concentrations of NDMA and DMN was significant due to high NO2 concentrations in winter, and (3) primary emissions predominantly affected the ambient concentrations of NDMA and DMN in spring, summer, and autumn.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7841-7849
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume55
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2021

Keywords

  • Amines
  • Atmospheric reactions
  • Kinetics
  • Organic nitrogenous compounds
  • Orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA)
  • Primary emission
  • Secondary organic aerosol

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