Parent-child Communication, Social Norms, and the Development of Cyber Aggression in Early Adolescence

Anna Bullo, Peter J. Schulz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


To understand the development of cyber aggression during adolescence, it is important to consider the temporal variability of its potential predictors. This study uses a four-wave survey to investigate how changes in peer norms, parental norms, and parental communication are associated with two-year trajectories of online peer aggression. The sample includes 1521 Swiss middle school students (Mage T1 = 11.54, SD = 0.40; 48% female). The results showed that over time a better parental communication quality and anti-aggression norms predicted lower rates and slower development of cyber aggression. Moreover, parental variables emerged as a quite stable deterrent of aggressive conduct. Although entrance into adolescence is characterized by the rise of peer influence, results from this study suggest that parents maintain an important protective role.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1774-1786
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Youth and Adolescence
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Cyber aggression
  • Early adolescence
  • Longitudinal
  • Parent-child communication
  • Social norms


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