To understand the development of cyber aggression during adolescence, it is important to consider the temporal variability of its potential predictors. This study uses a four-wave survey to investigate how changes in peer norms, parental norms, and parental communication are associated with two-year trajectories of online peer aggression. The sample includes 1521 Swiss middle school students (Mage T1 = 11.54, SD = 0.40; 48% female). The results showed that over time a better parental communication quality and anti-aggression norms predicted lower rates and slower development of cyber aggression. Moreover, parental variables emerged as a quite stable deterrent of aggressive conduct. Although entrance into adolescence is characterized by the rise of peer influence, results from this study suggest that parents maintain an important protective role.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to express their gratitude to all schools, teachers, students, and parents involved in the study and would like to thank all research assistants who helped with data entry.
© 2022, The Author(s).
- Cyber aggression
- Early adolescence
- Parent-child communication
- Social norms