The proposition, derived from self-determination theory (SDT), that autonomy-support has a positive effect on self-motivation and well-being, is examined in two distinct cultural settings. Participants were 264 high school students from Russia and the United States who completed measures of perceived parental- and teacher-autonomy-support, academic motivation, and well-being. Means and covariance structure analyses were used to examine the cultural comparability of measured constructs. Results supported the hypotheses that Russian adolescents would perceive parents and teachers as more controlling than U.S. students; and in both samples, perceived autonomy-support would predict greater academic self-motivation and well-being. Results are discussed in terms of SDT's postulate of a basic human need for autonomy in the context of cultural variations.